Uitmõtteid

1. Kuidas raadionetti saada?
2. Cisco ja Linksys'i koostöö
3. Ole valvas
4. B ja G
5. Kaugus
6. Kui kõrgele neid antenne, siis ikkagi ajada?
7. RSSI ja sõbrad
8. Kui suur see SNR peab olema?
9. Veelkord SNRist
10. Reaktsioon
11. Kanalitest
12. G vs. B
13. Mõnede levinud kaabilte sumbuvused
14. Broadcom'i draiverid
15. Võimsused
16. Temperatuuri mõju elektroonikale
17. Linke erinevate levialade kaartidele
18. WRT54G linke
19. Getting practical about wireless security, Part 1: Building a wireless sniffer with Perl
20. How to disable radio client to radio client communication with Cisco AP1200?
21. Linksys WRT54G Advanced Wireless Settings (with Sveasoft firmware):
22. Kuidas ühendust mitte teha
23. Veel üks juhtum
24. Äike
25. Proxim MP11.a - what is satellite density?
26. Kuidas teha?
27. Polarisatsioonist
28. 5 GHz Proximi kogemus
29. Omnist
30. 5 GHz ja "radar"
31. Seadmetest la"hemalt
32. Pilte
33. Antenne testimas
34. WDS issues
35. "The citywide Wi-Fi reality check"
36. Kuidas (suurem) maja raadionetiga katta?
37. Mida teha tegelastega, kes ei trygi Internetti, vaid teevad oma LANi yle minu raadiovorgu?
38. Ethernet
39. Linksys diversity issues
40. xDSL
41. Fiiber MUX
42. How to Setup a Pre-Paid Card System to use with a Wireless Hotspot
43. Motorola WR850G
44. Motorola WE800G
45. nvram variables
46. How to fix a bricked WRT?
47. WEP & WPA nõrgad kohad
48. Suurema kohtvõrgu ehitamine
49. Linux + VLAN
50. Miks ei ole LAN sobivaim meedium Intereneti jagamiseks ehk viirused sind hukutavad.
51. 802.11a sagedusplaan
52. MICROWAVE OVENS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
53. GSM & Co.
54. WR850G ja Openwrt Whiterussian RC3
55. "Turvasysteemid" ja WiFi saatja
56. Pajatavad WEPist ja selle turvalisest...
57. Katrina Photos
58. Kummuli moblamast
59. 5 GHz DFS
60. WR850G + WR RC4
61. OpenWRT RC4 + Motorola WR850G + VLANimine
62. Cantenna hjumor
63. Kanali valikust...
64. OpenWRT RC4 ja client mode hädad.
65. DD-WRT
66. Client statics
67. Motorola WE800G ruutiv klient, LAN teeb DHCPd ja ka NATi
68. Pikk link
69. WRT54GL + 3rd party firmware
70. Mastikene
71. Passive repeater
72. Captive portal
73. CAM
74. "Vesi" ja antennid
75. L2ppar, toide ja "imelik" wifi.
76. Keskkond & levi
77. Eesti raadiosagedusplaan
78. Remote telnet login via script - expect
79. "Probleem: wifi signaal segab teleka pilti"
80. WiMAX kiirgusvõimsuse piirangud
81. Motorola WE800G + OpenWRT + liideste MAC aadressid


Siia faili lisan ma miskeid uitmõtteid (raadio)neti teemadel.

Loodetavalt ei ole see täieline jama...

1. Kuidas raadionetti saada?
Esiteks uuri välja kui kaugele jääb mõni ISP.
Edasi uuri võimalusi kuidas sa selle "toru" endani pikendada saad. Raadio (a'la
Wi-Fi) vajab selleks otsenähtavust ehk uuri sellele suunale jäävaid
moblamaste, korstnaid, kõrgeid maju vms. Kui kohapeal midagi sarnast ei ole,
siis peab ise miski masti püstitama.
Kui sul selles plaanis miski pilt on kujunenud, siis vaata palju sul raha
selle teostamiseks on ning vastavalt sellele tuleb ka edasine teostus
valida.

http://www.itkeskus.ee/index.php?lang=est&main_id=181,2498,2478

Miskid näited:
http://www.vendomar.ee/~hurmi/kostivere.html
http://www.hot.ee/tvwifi/
http://www.hinnavaatlus.ee/phorum/viewtopic.php?p=1487994#1487994
http://www.wifi.ee/?p=news&lang=est&id=781
http://www.wifi.ee/?p=news&lang=est&id=786
http://www.wifi.ee/?p=news&lang=est&id=790
http://www.wifi.ee/?p=news&lang=est&id=571
http://www.hellenurme.ee/wifi/

Ise tegin sellise võrgu:
http://ranume.radionet.ee/
http://ranume.radionet.ee/vork_tana.png

Sinu asukohta, tahtmisi ja võimalusi täpsemalt teadmata on raske midagi
konkreetset soovitada. Vaata linke ning saad miskigi ettekujutuse, mis sind ees
võib oodata.

KKK: http://voru.wifi.ee/index.php?leht=7


2. Cisco ja Linksys'i koostöö
Kui tahad Cisco WGB350 kasutada Linksys WRT54G kliendina, siis pead kasutama
seda kui WDS ühendust ("Lazy WDS").


3. Ole valvas
Traadita ühenduse kasutamisel eelda, et sind kuulatakse pealt ehk jälgi,
mis andmeid sa turvamata kanalil liigutad.


4. B ja G
Vähemasti välistingimises on mixed mode (ehk "b" ja "g" korraga)
kasutamine "kurjast", sest ühilduvuse tagamiseks peab saatja pidevalt kiirustega "mängima".
Sellest tulenevalt on mixed võrgus saavutatav ülekandekiirus väiksem, kui panna saatjad
fikseeritult "b" peal käima.

Testisin seda 2 Proxim AP-600 (2 km WDS link), kus üks on "b" raadiomooduliga ning
teine "b/g" raadiomooduliga. Kui "b/g" mix mode lubada, siis on lingil tuntav
pakettide kadu, aga pannes sellegi raadiomoodult ainult "b" peale, siis ei miskit kadu.
Niipalju veel, et "g" nõutavat signaali kvaliteeti on nagunii suht keeruline
välitingimustes saavutada (a'la läppariga klient) ning ühe võimaliku veaallika
kõrvaldamiseks on parem "g" toetav raadioseade juba kohe "b" peale keerata.

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps430/products_white_paper09186a00801d61a3.shtml


5. Kaugus
Pika raadiolingi (~10 km) kirvereegel:
1. RF kaabel (kogu fiider raadioseadme ja antenni vahel) olgu võimalikult
lühike ja väikese sumbuvusega
(ütleme 4 dB juures);
2. Antenn olgu võimalikult suure dBi ehk suunateguriga (näiteks 24 dBi);
3. Raadioseame väljundvõimsus olgu reguleeritav (näiteks alates 1 mW);


6. Kui kõrgele neid antenne, siis ikkagi ajada?
"Mida kõrgemal, seda parem."


7. RSSI ja sõbrad
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/phones/ps379/products_white_paper0900aecd800f6d97.shtml

RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication) is equivalent to a receiver
threshold.

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/wireless/ps469/prod_installation_guide09186a008024d28b.html

dBm - the signal strength in decibels with respect to milliwatts.

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/wireless/ps458/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a008007f7c7.html

Signal strength and quality are expressed in decibels referenced to an input
signal of one milliwatt of power (dBm) and as a percentage of full power.

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/wireless/ps4555/products_installation_and_configuration_guide_chapter09186a0080204a3a_4container_ccmigration_09186a0080206254.html

The signal strength for all received packets. The higher the value and the
more green the bar graph is, the stronger the signal.

The histogram below the bar graph provides a visual interpretation of the
current signal strength. Differences in signal strength are indicated by the
following colors: green (strongest), yellow (middle of the range), and red
(weakest).

Range: 0 to 100% or -95 to -45 dBm

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/ps5861/products_installation_guide_chapter09186a008021e5ee.html
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/phones/ps379/products_white_paper0900aecd800f6d97.shtml
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/partner/products/hw/wireless/ps5279/products_installation_guide_chapter09186a00801cff1a.html


http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=11170
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSSI
http://www.maxim-ic.com/glossary/index.cfm/Ac/V/ID/252/Tm/RSSI/ln/en
http://www.ces.clemson.edu/linux/dbm-rssi.shtml

Bestial kirjutab http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=19800#19800

RSSI is signal strength. Both RSSI and noise are expressed in dBm through
this formula: RSSI=10 X LOG(power in mW). So, if your WRT transmit 84mW we say
it's 19.25dBm. If you recieve RSSI=-80dBm, you recieve ALOG(-80/10)= 10^-8
mW. You get negative dBm because you recieve less than 1mW. Hence -80dBm is
really better than -90dBm (RSSI). Talking about noise, the less you get, the
better you "hear" (-99dBm is less than -90dBm).

Somebody posted on the forum this table of enough values of RSSI at each
rate:

54 Mb -68 dBm
48 Mb -68 dBm
36 Mb -75 dBm
24 Mb -79 dBm
18 Mb -82 dBm
12 Mb -84 dBm
11 Mb -82 dBm
9 Mb gen img
6 Mb -88 dBm
5,5 Mb -85 dBm
2 Mb -86 dBm
1 Mb -89 dBm

It seems more or less accurate.

robritts kirjutab http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=91027#91027

First off, -50 is LARGER than -100, not smaller. There are a number of folks
on here confused about that fact. If you want to talk in absolute values,
say so like this |-50| < |-100|. It is not accurate to say -50 < -100 or -50
is smaller than -100 or whatever.

Rules of thumb:

+ A bigger carrier signal (dBm) is better, i.e. -50dBm is better than
-60dBm
+ A smaller noise signal (dBm) is better, i.e. -100dBm noise is better
than -90dBm
+ A large SNR (dB) is better.
+ For negative dBm, every change of 10dBm reflects a signal strength (in
mW) change by an order of magnitude, i.e. -50dBm is not just a little bit
better than -60dBm, it is a hell of a lot better.

Here's why:

+ dBm = 10 X Log10(Power/1mW), dBm is a unitless, dimensionless value
that reflects a relationship of a ratio, in this case power and 1mW where
1mW is the reference.
+ Power = 1mW X 10 ^ (dBm/10), power will have a unit of mW here since
the reference is 1mW.
+ SNR = 10 X Log10(Power,signal/Power,noise) = dBm,signal - dBm,noise

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk722/tk809/technologies_tech_note09186a00800e90fe.shtml


8. Kui suur see SNR peab olema?
802.11b/g kiirus ja selle saavutamiseks vajalikud näitajad:

K_i_i_r_u_s Tyyp Mkood RSSI SNR

54 Mbit/s g 64-QAM -70 dBm 30 dB
48 Mbit/s g 64-QAM -73 dBm 27 dB
36 Mbit/s g 16-QAM -79 dBm 21 dB
24 Mbit/s g 16-QAM -83 dBm 17 dB
18 Mbit/s g QPSK -86 dBm 14 dB
12 Mbit/s g QPSK -89 dBm 11 dB
11 Mbit/s b CCK -90 dBm 10 dB
9 Mbit/s g BPSK -90 dBm 10 dB
6 Mbit/s g BPSK -91 dBm 9 dB
5,5 Mbit/s b CCK -93 dBm 7 dB
2 Mbit/s b Barker -95 dBm 5 dB
1 Mbit/s b Barker -97 dBm 3 dB

NB: Nagu arvata on need kaudsed numbrid, sest selle tabeli tegin Broadcom'i
näitel ( http://217.159.159.139/Broadcom%20802.11ag.pdf leht 35) ja eeldusel,
et müra on -100 dBm.


Sarnane tabel MicroStar (MSI) AP54G:
http://www.msi.com.tw/program/products/communication/cmu/pro_cmu_detail.php?UID=583

Sensitivity:

54Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -67dBm
48Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -68dBm
36Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -72dBm
24Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -76dBm
18Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -79dBm
12Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -81dBm
11Mbps CCK @ 8% PER = -82dBm
9Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -83dBm
6Mbps OFDM @ 10% PER = -84dBm
5.5Mbps CCK @ 8% PER = -85dBm
2Mbps QPSK @ 8% PER = -86dBm
1Mbps BPSK @ 8% PER = -89dBm

Arvatavalt siingi on myra (noise) -100 dBm'i peal.

Erinevatel tootjatel on SNR vajadus ka erinev. Näiteks Orinoco PCMCIA Silver/Gold
korral on need
( http://www.qsl.net/pa0hoo/helix_wifi/linkbudgetcalc/wlan_budgetcalc.html#Signal%20to%20Noise%20Ratio )

11Mbps => 16 dB ; 5.5 Mbps => 11 dB ; 2 Mbps =>7 dB ; 1 Mbps => 4 dB

Kui ei midagi muud, siis vähemalt üldine SNR suundumus on nähtav.


9. Veelkord SNRist
11 Mbit/s tahab signaali marginaali (SNR) 15 dB ja Linksys'i näitel on
802.11.g üldse mõttetu, sest sa ei saa kuidagi piirata valitava kiiruse maksimumi
ning see raip püüab ikka 54 Mbit/s peale minna. Mis sellest saab on ka teada -
seadme tegelik läbilase langeb.
Miskipärast kahtlustan, et osa WET54G hangumisi võib selle pideva kiiruse "loksutamisega" seotud olla.
Ses mõttes sobib WET54G asemel rohkem WET11, sest see lihtsalt ei saa üle 11 Mbit/s käia ning SNR
nõudmine on seega ka väiksem. Tundub, et kavalam ja kuuldavasti ka odavam, on osta
hoopiski WRT54G ja kasutada seda kliendina.

PS: WET11 (ver. 1) manuaal väidab "receiver sensitivity" -85 dBm, mitte -97 dBm ja
"signal strength" on väidetavalt mõõdetud protsendina mürast ehk tegemist on justkui
SNR väärtusega. Kuna see on antud protsendina, siis tekib küsimus, et protsent
millest? Ükski mu leitud kapsas ei anna sellele vastust.
Katsed erinevate võimsustega ja (kaudsed) arvutused andsid vahemikuks
41...45 dB (Cisco'l on see vahemik 50 dB (-92/-95...-42/-45 dBm)). Linksys'il võiks see ka nii
olla, aga kindel ei saa selles olla.
PS2: Muudes Linksys'i seadmete kapsastes ei ole "receiver sensity"'st üldse juttu.

Olukord on ikka täiesti segane, sest puudub võimalus erinevaid tootjaid
võrrelda. Igaüks näitab oma numbreid - protsent millestki, aga millest?
Missugune protsent see hea on? Missugune protsendi väärtus näitab, mis
kiirusega seda raadiolinki kannatab kasutada?


10. Reaktsioon
Suurema võrgu ehitamisel oleks lollusele kuluva raha kokkuhoidmiseks
mõttekas vähemalt enne tegemist spetsialistiga (näiteks Vendomar...) nõu pidada.


11. Kanalitest
2,4 GHz kanalite ülekattumine - on ainult 3 ülekatteta kanalit (1,6 ja
11 või 2,7,12 või 3,8,13 või 4,9,14 (Prantsusmaa)), aga seegi ei tähenda suurt midagi,
sest nagunii ei ole sa oma seadmetega üksi ning "naabrimees" oma seadmetega on kindlasti
sul ka kukil. Kasutatavate kanalite valimise ja muutmisega tuleb paratamatult
tegeleda tihti/pidevalt.


12. G vs. B
54 Mbit/s (802.11g) ühendusel on häiriv mõju 11b ühendustele, 11g olgu toas
või väga kitsa nurgaga antennidega suunatult õues.


13. Mõnede levinud kaabilte sumbuvused
Belden H1000 - 2,4 GHz ~24 dB/100 m ( http://ranume.radionet.ee/Belden_cb_cx_H1000.pdf ).
Andrew LDF2-50 - 2,4 GHz 19,7 dB/100 m ( http://ranume.radionet.ee/LDF2-50.pdf ).


14. Broadcom'i draiverid
Linksys kiiruse reguleerimine ("rate selection" 1-54 Mbit/s) ei tööta üldse, kui
sealt valida midagi muud (peale "auto") on tulemuseks side kadumine.
Põhjuseks on arvatavasti see, et kast endiselt reklaamib enda toetatud
kiirusteks 1-54 Mbit/s (või sõltuvalt seadmest 1-11 Mbit/s), aga ise teiste
kiirustega, kui märgitud, enam külge ei lase. Aparaatuse taaskäivitamine võib
olukorra päästa, aga halvemal juhul tuleb kohapeal käia ja "auto" taastada.


15. Võimsused
Väide: Linksys'i (ehk Broadcom'i) arusaam saatja väljundvõimsusest (mW) on midagi
muud kui Cisco'l ehk väidetav mW väärtus on müstifikatsioon.

Selle näitamiseks tegin ühe katse.
Raadiolingi ühes otsas on vastuvõtja Linksys WET11 ja teises otsas on saatjad
Linksys WRT54G ja Cisco BR352. NB: "3rd party firmware" võimaldab ka WRT54G
väljundvõimsust muuta.
Kõrvaldamaks antennide erinevusest tulenevat sai ühendatud saatjad läbi
splitteri sama antenni külge (saatjad on'ülekatteta kanalitel ja ülepingekaitsetega
üksteisest elektriliselt lahutatud). Antennide võimsus, kaablite pikkus ega
isegi vahemaa ei oma tegelikult antud ülesandes miskit tähendust, sest otsin
selle müstilise "%" tähendust detsibellides ning detsibellides arvutatuna on
eelloetletud tegurite mõju "lineaarne" ning võetav kui konstant.

Senine kogemus näitab, et eeldada võiks, et Cisco "mW" on
tõesti see mW, mida väidetakse see olevat.

Seega panin WRT54G 50mW peale ja muutsin vaid BR352 väljundvõimsust (50 mW,
30 mW, 20 mW, 5 mW ja 1 mW).

Tulemus WET11 poolt vaadates (tugevus ja kvaliteet on miskid "%"):

BR352 Tugevus Kvaliteet Tugevuse max ja min üle mitme katse

50 mW 33% 64% (max 38%, min 30%)
30 mW 29% 60% (max 34%, min 26%)
20 mW 26% 57% (max 28%, min 24%)
5 mW 11% 45% (max 12%, min 10%)
1 mW 0% 30% (max 0%, min 0%)

Samal ajal WRT54G:

WRT54G Tugevus Tugevuse max ja min üle mitme katse

50 mW 24% (max 28%, min 22%)
50 mW 20% (max 20%, min 20%)
50 mW 20% (max 22%, min 18%)
50 mW 18% (max 18%, min 18%)
50 mW 18% (max 18%, min 18%)

(Keskmine on 20%.)

Eeldades, et diapasoon millest WET11 seda "%" võtab on sama, mis Cisco'l (50
dB) ja kui tõepoolest see "%" on SNR'i iseloomustaja, siis:

BR352 Tugevus SNR? Tugevuse max ja min üle mitme katse

50 mW 33% 16,5 dB (max 19 dB, min 15 dB)
30 mW 29% 14.5 dB (max 17 dB, min 13 dB)
20 mW 26% 13 dB (max 14 dB, min 12 dB)
5 mW 11% 5,5 dB (max 6 dB, min 5 dB)
1 mW 0% 0 dB (max 0 dB, min 0 dB)

Samal ajal WRT54G:

WRT54G Tugevus SNR? Tugevuse max ja min üle mitme katse

50 mW 24% 12 dB (max 14 dB, min 11 dB)
50 mW 20% 10 dB (max 10 dB, min 10 dB)
50 mW 20% 10 dB (max 11 dB, min 9 dB)
50 mW 18% 9 dB (max 9 dB, min 9 dB)
50 mW 18% 9 dB (max 9 dB, min 9 dB)

(Keskmine 10 dB.)

Mis arvata?

"WRT54G 50 mW" on "BR352 50 mW" "keskmiselt" 6,5 dB (max 9 dB, min 5 dB)
ehk ~4,5 korda nõrgem.
Põhjusmõtteliselt sama peaks kehtima ka teiste WRT54G väljundvõimsuse
väärtuste korral, aga see katse "mõõtmised" tegin töötaval lingil, siis
ei hakanud ma parameetritega eriti mängida.

Kinnituse, et see väide võib tõepoolest tõepärane olla saab ka sellest, et
kõrvaldades splitteri ning pannes WRT54G eraldi samasuguse antenni (kuigi
~5 meetrit lühema kaabliga (Belden H1000)), siis teisest WET11'st saab BR352 50 mW
sarnase signaalitugevuse "%" alles juhul kui WRT54G on 200 mW peale pandud!


Ametlikult on WRT54G väljundvõimsus 15 dBm (~32 mW), mis vaikeväärtusena on
märgitud kui 28 mW. Mulle küll tundub, et seda ei saa kuidagi uskuda. On ka
võimalus, et see WRT54G on vigane, aga selleks on vaja teha
uued katsed ning ehk ka hoopiski laboris...

PS: WRT54GS kapsas ütleb, et väljundvõimsus on "max 18 dBm", mis ongi 50 mW.
Kas WRT54G ja selle järglaste laeks ongi 50 mW?

Täiendus:
Karmide aparaatustega tehtud katsed siiski näitavad, et mW arv ka Linksys'il õige:
http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=1702

Enda tubane katse BR342 vs WRT54GS ( http://217.159.159.139/matsutest.sxc )
näitab ka, et "%" on siiski võrreldavad.

Tundub, et kas see WRT54G on siiski lihtsalt vigane või kas jamab ülepingekaitse või
häda on pigtailis. On ka täiesti võimalik, et Linksys'i kola on üldse kõikuva
kvaliteediga.


16. Temperatuuri mõju elektroonikale
http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=51205#51205

"Consumer Grade" electronics like the ones we're discussing here are
designed for 'indoor' temperatures and conditions; exceeding those can, and
does, lead to premature failure.

Capacitors are filled with an electrolytic paste that freezes and
changes characteristics, as well as sometimes 'popping' the cap.

Resistors are also temperature sensitive and change their ratings.
This is especially true of the cheapie ones used in this class of devices.

Humidity gets into components and degrades them. Power supplies are
particularly vulnerable. Condensation (dew) is a terrible killer.

Excessive heat, either from being outside in the sun or from
inadequate ventilation, 'cooks' the device. BTW heat is the most common
cause of failure in devices like these, even inside don't stack 'em or seal
'em in a closet.

Transmitters and Receivers are somewhat temperature sensitive and
mis-tune frequencies at extreme temperatures. Other timing circuits also
show increasing divergence.

Sea or ocean salt in the air is vicious. I've opened up sea-side
electronics after only a few weeks to find them crusty and dead.

Thermal expansion & contraction take a huge toll on devices,
particularly solder joints. This is a particular problem in desert-like
environments where temperatures can swing 50c in a few hours. Even in less
rigorous climates this daily cycle can be surprisingly wide.

Insects, small mammals, birds, and the like. They love the steady
warmth given out by boxes like these, particularly in cool and cold weather.
They'll build nests, chew on wires, shit and piss all over 'em. Nothing like
opening a 'blue box' to find it full of angry wasps!

Lousy electrical service. Typically things outside get plugged into
whatever is handy, usually without consideration of what else is on the
circuit. If there's a heavy-draw device like a timed/triggered flood lamp,
refrigerator, cooker, whatever, then the electronics will be subject to
regular, and destructive, 'brownouts'.


17. Linke erinevate levialade kaartidele

Elion - http://www.elion.ee/docs/rdsl_tugijaamad_kaart.gif

Wavecom - http://www.wavecom.ee/leviala.html
http://www.wavecom.ee/gfx/leviala.jpg
http://www.wavecom.ee/gfx/leviala-old.jpg

Pärnu Maavalitsus - http://www.keskus.parnumaa.ee/files/167.png

Radionet - http://www.radionet.ee/levialakaart.htm

BaltMAX -
Tallinn http://www.baltmax.ee/?g=3&m=5&l=1
Tartu http://www.baltmax.ee/?g=3&m=6&l=1
P2rnu http://www.baltmax.ee/?g=3&m=7&l=1

Norby - http://www.norby.ee/wimax/kaart3.html


18. WRT54G linke

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WRT54G
http://openwrt.bumpclub.ee/
http://linux.ee/linksys_wrt54g
http://www.linksysinfo.org/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=6
http://www.linksysinfo.org/modules.php?name=Forums
https://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/prod/oet/forms/blobs/retrieve.cgi?attachment_id=342277&native_or_pdf=pdf
http://www.batbox.org/wrt54g-linux.html
http://seattlewireless.net/index.cgi/LinksysWrt54g
http://toys.lerdorf.com/archives/20_Kismet_on_the_Linksys_WRT54G.html

http://wrt54g.net/firmware/
http://www.wrt54g.com/

http://www.tfnltd.com/hardware.php


19. Getting practical about wireless security, Part 1: Building a wireless sniffer with Perl

http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/wi-rfsensor.html?ca=dgr-lnxw01OS-Sniffer


20. How to disable radio client to radio client communication with Cisco AP1200?
Cisco APs:

Block ALL Inter-Client Communications (PSPF)

Public Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) prevents client devices associated to
a bridge or access point from inadvertently sharing files with other client
devices on the wireless network. It provides Internet access to client
devices without providing other capabilities of a LAN. With PSPF enabled,
client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless
network. This feature is useful for public wireless networks like those
installed in airports or on college campuses.

Note The PSPF feature is available in firmware versions 11.08 and later,
which are available on Cisco.com. You can download Cisco Aironet firmware
releases at http://www.cisco.com/public/sw-center/sw-wireless.shtml .

Hint: http://AP_address/SetAssociationsAdv.shm


21. Linksys WRT54G Advanced Wireless Settings (with Sveasoft firmware):

Transmission Rate
The transmission rate is set according to the speed of your wireless
connection. Select the transmission rate from the drop down list, or select
'Auto' to have OpenRGautomatically use the fastest possible data
transmission rate.

CTS Protection Mode
CTS Protection Mode boosts your gateway's ability to intercept
Wireless-G and 802.11b transmissions. Conversely, CTS Protection Mode
decreases performance. Leave this feature disabled unless you encounter
severe communication difficulties between the gateway and Wireless-G
products.

Frame Burst - Max Number
The maximum number of frames to send in a single burst.

Frame Burst - Burst Time
The duration of the burst period.

Beacon Interval
A beacon is a packet broadcast by OpenRGto synchronize the wireless
network. The Beacon Interval value indicates the frequency interval of the
beacon.

DTIM Interval
The Delivery Traffic Indication Message (DTIM) is a countdown value that
informs wireless clients of the next opportunity to receive multicast and
broadcast messages. This value ranges between 1 and 16384.

Fragmentation Threshold
Packets that are larger than this threshold are fragmented into multiple
packets. Try to increase the fragmentation threshold if you encounter high
packet error rates. Do not set the threshold too low, since this can result
in reduced networking performance.

RTS Threshold
OpenRGsends Request to Send (RTS) packets to the Wireless client in
order to negotiate the dispatching of data. The Wireless client responds
with a Clear to Send (CTS) packet, signaling that transmission can commence.
In case packets are smaller than the preset threshold, the RTC/CTS mechanism
is not active. If you encounter inconsistent data flow, try a minor
reduction of the RTS threshold size.

Hint: https://AP_address/Wireless_Advanced.asp


22. Kuidas ühendust mitte teha

Ühel päeval ruuteri logisid vaadates näen, et miskist tundmatus võrgus olev
aadress püüab Internetti trügida. Erilist muret see ei tee, sest keegi ei
saa keelata IP aadresse käsitsi panemast. Paar päeva hiljem helistab ISP
tegelane ja küsib, et kas mul on leviala nimega "buffalo". Teatan, et ei
ole, aga kirjeldatud võrk on tuttav. ISP tegelane torgib "asja" edasi
ja selgub, et miski firma tegelased on paigaldanud Buffalo Ethernet
Converter'i ja Buffalo ruuter/AP ning pookinud selle suvalise leitud võrgu
külge - minu võrgu! Vennad netti ei saanud ning miskipärast kõllasid ISPle,
kuigi minu kontakt on lihtsalt leitav. Sai siis ISP selliga järgmisel päeval
kohale mindud ja tehtud käkile otsa vaadatud.
Antenn sai ISP saatja peale keeratud ja konfidega möllatud (~2,5 tundi).
Gateway pingis ilusasti, aga netti ikkagi ei saanud. Mis selgus - EC oli AP LAN'i
poole ühendatud. Kui ruuterit ei ole vaja, siis saab ka sedasi teha, aga antud
juhul oli üles sätitud DHCP server liiast.

Katusele paigaldatud antenn (13 dBi paneel) oli
miski toruteibiga (valge lint) kokku tõmmatud (vulkaniseerivat
teipi peaks ikka kasutama) ja RF kaabel tilbendas niisama (nipukaid ei tunne
vist keegi). Otsenähtavus (2..3 km) on täitsa olemas, aga link kõigub 2 ja 5,5
Mbit/s vahel.

Kõikse imelikum on ikkagi firma käitumine - nemad müüsid ja paigaldasid
seadmed ning nemad pidanuks seda ka korrektselt tegema, mitte lihtsalt
uttu tõmbama ja kliendi ilma netita jätma.


23. Veel üks juhtum
Helistab üks ja küsib, et kas ma olen Everyday'st? Vastan, et ei ole ning
küsin, et milles on küsimus? Kostab, et ta paigaldas wifi seadme ning nüüd
ei saa Internetti ja küsitakse password'i. Telefoninumber olevat seal ja see
on see millel ta parajasti helistab. Küsimused, et mis seade tal seal on ning
mismoodi konfitud annavad segase tulemuse - Trendnet'i kast olevat. Müüja
(K-arvutid) ei oskavat asja konfida ning vend on omadega üksi.
Soovitasin kontsulteerida A-Kaabliga ning juhul kui nad ei aita, siis
lubasin ise ligi minna. Arvatavasti sai ta abi, sest rohkem ta helistanud ei ole.

Jällegi jääb selgusetuks kuidas see kast tal seal konfitud oli ning mis
moodi ta minu võrku ühendati. Müüja võiks ja peaks ise ikka teadma, mida ta
müüb ja kuidas kastiga ringi käia.


24. Äike
http://www.wirelessestimator.com/t_content.cfm?pagename=Grounding%20Resistance

http://www.polyphaser.com/ppc_TD1011.aspx
http://www.polyphaser.com/ppc_ptd_home.aspx

http://www.kolumbus.fi/oh5iy/back/Ham%20Radio.html
via
http://www.wifi.ee/?p=news&lang=est&id=905


http://lightning.acr.fi/latest-4.html
http://lightning.acr.fi/latest-24.html


25. Proxim MP11.a - what is satellite density?

http://www.comstor.de/Proxim/Help/helpfiles/MP.11Version2.1Help.htm#satellitedensity


26. Kuidas teha?
Kysimus:

Vaja linki ~500 m kahe talu vahele. Otsena"htavus on saavutatav.

Vastus:

Su arvutis olev raadiokaart ja wifi ruuter peavad olema sellised, et neile
saab vist antenni panna ning vajaliku kaabli pikkuse saad ju lihtsalt mo~o~tes
vahemaad arvutist/ruuterist antenni paigalduse kohani.
Sind huvitab kaabli sumbuvus ning kasutatava antenni "vo~imendus" ehk kui
kaabel on sitt ning liiga pikk ja antenn on no~rk, siis levi ei ole.

Kui sa mu viidatud lehte ( http://217.159.159.139/yhendus.html ) vaatasid ning kommentaare lugesid, siis:
1. Kaabel on vaenlane;
2. Antenn on so~ber;
3. Otsena"htavus on lingi alus;

Kuna sul on vaja linki, mitte leviala, siis on loomulik kasutada
suundantenne. Odavatel poeantennidel ei ole mastikinnitust, vaid ainult
seinakinnitus (miskite kruvidega seina ku"ge ja asi vask). Viidatud poolakal
(Vendomarist saadav Poola pa"ritolu paneelantenn, mis on juba varustatud ~3
m kaabliga) on miskigi suunamise vo~imalus, aga Rantelon (ilma kaablita sarnane antenn Satcomist,
aga kodumaise pa"ritoluga) la"heb lihtsalt otse lapiti seina ku"lge.
Sa pead vaatama mõlemas majas koha kus kohast saad sa tekitada
otsena"htavuse u"hest antennist teise niimoodi, et mo~tteline kiir ja"a"b paar meetrit
ko~rgemal kahe maja vahele ja"a"vatest takistustest. Kui sa nagunii uued seadmed
ostad, siis ise vo~taksin juba sellised, mida ei pea arvutusse installeerima
ehk ruuteriks na"teks Linksys WRT54G vo~i miski odavam Linksys'i WIFI ruuter ning
lingi teise otsa Linksys WET11 vo~i WET54G.
Raadiokaabel antenni ja seadme vahel on lu"hike (ka odav) ja arvutisse ei ole
vaja lisada midagi muud, kui tavalise vo~rgukaardi ning enduse arvutitesse
endad juba tavalise LAN kaabliga.


27. Polarisatsioonist
2,4 GHz levialas on veel kasutatav horisontaal polarisatsioon (kui nii
saab öelda). Seda seepärast, et valdav osa ringantennidest on
vertikaalpolarisatsioonis ning kliendid seega samuti. Polaarsuste vahe on 20
dB ehk signaal ühes polaarsuses samal sagedusel mõjub teise polaarsusesse 20
dB nõrgemalt.


28. 5 GHz Proximi kogemus
Proxim'i MP.11a konfimisel ja lingi testimisel pööra tähelepanu
Network Secret'ile. Kui need on valed, siis Worp statistika näitab pakette,
aga lõugab "invalid parameter". Samas kui Network Name on vale, siis ei
näitata ühtegi paketti.


29. Omnist
Omni ehk ringantenni kasutamine 2,4 GHz levialas läheb järjest
keerulisemaks. Üheks lahenduseks on sektorantennide kasutamine ja vastavalt
ka saatjete arvu tõstmine. PS: Mõistlik klientide arv per saatja on 10..20.


30. 5 GHz ja "radar"
5 GHz pruukimisel pea meeles, et Euroopa variant standardist ra"a"gib "Radar
Detection"'ist ehk vali hoolikalt oma antenni suunda ja vo~imendust (loe: omni
antenn on kasutu toode) ning ikkagi ole valmis side ha"ireteks.


31. Seadmetest la"hemalt
K: Soov teha Mustama"el 1 km link, aga otsena"htavusega arvatavasti lood
nadid.
(NB: Tundub siiski, et selle va"ite paikapidavust la"hemalt uuritud ei ole.)

V: Otsentavus on oluline ning seda enam linnas.
Kas maste saab paigaldada vo~i on juba olemas miski ko~rgem koht?
Palju sul neid paneelmaju otsentavust varjutama ja"a"b?
On variant, et saad signaali ka peegeldusest ka"tte, aga see on suuresti
katsetamise teema.
Kas ISP on u"hes otsas olemas vo~i pead lingi ise tegema?

Kuna linnas on 2,4 GHz olukord suht jube, siis on 2 varianti:
1. Suured 2,4 GHz suundantennid, et naabrimehest u"le karjuda;
2. 5 GHz seadmed, sest see sagedusala on ha"irijatest puhas;

2,4 GHz korral:
1. suundantenni - 24 dBi Andrew suundantenn vo~i 18 dBi Mars (kumb neist parem
on tuleb proovida).;
2. RF kaablit antenni ja seadme vahele - Belden H1000 (mida lyhem, seda
parem);
3. seadet, mis oskaks ISP seadmetega suhelda - saab odavalt vo~i kallilt.
Odavalt proovida na"iteks Linksys'i WAP'ide vo~i WRT'dega, aga kallilt na"iteks Cisco
BR340'tega. Cisco on end to~estanud karmides tingimustes, aga kes hullu teab
ehk ka"ib sellel lingil ka Linksys.;
4. so~ltuvalt ISPst, miskit sorti marsruuter, mis sind vo~rku u"hendab - see
so~ltub juba ISPst ehk ko~ikse tavalisem seebikarp-ruuter vo~ib olla piisav, aga eks see
so~ltu suuresti sellest, mis see kast peab tegema.;

5 GHz korral:
1. suundantenn - 23 dBi Mars vo~i mo~ni va"iksem Mars.;
2. RF kaabel antenni ja seadme vahele - Kui suht like (~5 m), siis sobib ka
Belden H1000, aga pikema korral Andrew LDF2-50 3/8" Coax kaabel.;
3. seadet, mis oskaks ISP seadmetega suhelda - Proxim MP11.a (Accespoint'iks
BSU ning kliendi poole RSU v SU).;
4. so~ltuvalt ISPst, miskit sorti marsruuter, mis sind vo~rku u"hendab.

Kogu selle kola hinna saad ku"sida na"iteks Vendomarist.


32. Pilte
Siia korjan pilte moningatest seadmetest, mida olen ise ka katsetanud.
PS: Pildid on veebist voetud ning kuuluvad nende omanikele.

Linksys WRT54G:

Linksys WET11:

Linksys WET54G:

Cisco Aironet AP342:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps458/products_configuration_guide_book09186a0080104916.html

Cisco Aironet BR342:
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/wireless/ps441/products_qanda_item09186a0080094d01.shtml

Cisco Aironet BR352:
http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/product/wireless/airo_350/350brdgs/index.htm

Cisco Aironet 340 ISA:

Cisco Aironet 340 PCI:

Cisco Aironet 340 PCMCIA:

Cisco Aironet AP1200:

Proxim Tsunami MP11.a:

Proxim Orinoco b/g Silver PCMCIA:

Proxim Orinoco b/g Gold PCMCIA:



33. Antenne testimas
http://www.taastuvenergia.ee/antenn/


34. WDS issues
http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=11140


35. "The citywide Wi-Fi reality check"
http://news.com.com/The+citywide+Wi-Fi+reality+check/2100-7351_3-5722150.html?tag=nefd.lede


36. Kuidas (suurem) maja raadionetiga katta?

Vajad:
1. (korralikku) ruuterit;
2. mitu Wireless Access Point'i (AP) (mitte Wireless Router, vaid tavaline AP);
3. üks või mitu switch'i/hub'i;
4. LAN kaablit;
5. LAN pistikuid ja muid tarvikuid;

AP'd paigutad erinevatele korrustele vastavalt mõõtmistulemustele:
läpparisse NetStumbler ning käid maja paari AP'd ümber tõstes ilusaste läbi.

PS: Kirvereeglina juba paar seina mõjuvad signaalile halvavalt ning
sõltuvalt majast võib neid AP'sid õige mitu per korrus kuluda. Samas jälgi,
et saatajad ei oleks erinevatel korrustel üksteise peal, sest üldjuhul katab
saatja leviga ka ruumi enda peal ning ka all.

Võimalikult lollikindla/töökindla tulemuse saavutamiseks tuleb AP'd ühendada omavahel
LAN'iks LAN kaabliga (selleks ka need switch'id/hub'id), mitte proovida
raadioga neid sillata/WDS'ida vms.

Et tagada valutu liikumine maja erinevate levialade vahel, pane AP'd kõik
sama SSID'ga käima.
NB: AP'd peavad olema erinevatel kanalitel/sagedustel, et need üksteist võimalikult vähe segaks.
Ülekatteta 2,4 GHz kanaleid on vaid 3 ning sul vaja neid kanaleid vastavalt valida,
et lähedased sagedused jääksid üksteisest võimalikult kaugele.

Kui see võrk on vähegi kinnine, siis pane AP'des WEP/WPA käima ja jaga
vastavaid võtmeid ainult "õigetele" kasutajatele või tuvasta kasutajaid kuidagi keerulisemalt
(a'la Radius ja sõbrad).

Ruuter tuleb panna Intrneti ja LAN'i vahele nagu iga netitamise korralgi.
PS: Ruuter peaks olema seebikarbist kobedam, sest eriti juhul kui võrk jääb lahtiseks kõigile,
peab su ruuteripurk olema võimeline piirama kasutajate (illegaalset?) tegevust - teenuste keelamine,
alla/üles laadimise piiramine, ....
Vastasel korral ei saa sa lihtsalt miskitki moodi teada ega takistada, mis su võrgus toimub ning
kes sikku keerab.


37. Mida teha tegelastega, kes ei trygi Internetti, vaid teevad oma LANi yle minu raadiovorgu?

Kui MAC filtrid ja WEP/WAP ei saa pruukida, siis yheks voimaluseks on keelata raadioklientidel omavaheline suhtlus.

Linksys WRT54G/WRT54GS on selleks "AP Isolation".
Cisco AP342/352 on "Block ALL Inter-Client Communications (PSPF)" ja AP1200 "Public Secure Packet Forwarding".

WRT54G + Sveasoft: http://AP_address/Wireless_Advanced.asp
Cisco AP342/BR352: http://AP_address/SetAssociationsAdv.shm


38. Ethernet

http://slash.gopostal.ca/article.pl?sid=04/05/20/1925210&mode=thread
http://discountcablesusa.com/ethernet-cables100.html
http://www.industrialnetworking.com/support/general_faqs_info/ethernet_FAQs_I.shtml
http://www.commsplace.com/Knowledge/ITcs/html/tutorials/applications/ethernet_basics.htm
http://www.proav.de/index.html?http&&&www.proav.de/data/cables/CAT5.html
http://www.eetasia.com/ARTICLES/2005MAY/B/2005MAY16_NETD_INTD_TA.pdf
http://www.telecomdesigns.com/cabling/et_cable.html
http://www.bambooweb.com/articles/c/a/Category_5_Cable.html


39. Linksys diversity issues

http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=74971#74971

Quote of Sveasoft:
"We've discussed the diversity issue a couple of times in various topics. My
experience is that you need a signal of 82 dBi or better or the switch will
pick the wrong antenna about 20% of the time, resulting in packet loss."


40. xDSL
http://www.aware.com/products/dsl/adsl2plus.htm


41. Fiiber MUX
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/modules/ps4999/products_data_sheet09186a00801a557c.html

http://www.mrv.com/wdm/tech_cwdm.php
http://www.mrv.com/wdm/tech_mux.php
http://www.mrv.com/library/download.php?ctl=MRV-AN-WDM_Solutions&type=pdf72_url
http://www.fiber-optics.info/articles/cwdm.htm
http://www.lasermate.com/CWDM.html

http://www.mrv.com/wdm/tech_dwdm.php

http://focus.ti.com/docs/apps/catalog/tisolutions/tisolutions.jhtml?templateId=5557&path=templatedata/cm/general/data/onet_opt_tisol_oxcoadmsol

http://acronyms.thefreedictionary.com/OADM
http://www.doc.com/markets_ind.asp?mid=4
http://www.optowaves.com/oadm.htm
http://www.optowaves.com/page3.htm
http://www.neophotonics.com/products/oadm.html
http://www.canoga.com/library/configurator/CWDM/oadm.asp
http://www.corvisequipment.com/templates/sub1.cfm/page/ProductsOadm.html

http://fibers.org/articles/fs/9/5/3/1
http://www.ofcnfoec.org/materials/PDP11-1519.PDF
http://www.alliedtelesyn.com/products/details.aspx?516
http://www.aurora.com/products/cwdm-OP34M10S.html
http://www.aurora.com/products/cwdm-OP34M5x.html
http://www.aurora.com/products/headend-CH3000.html
http://www.pandacomdirekt.com/s_cwdm.html
http://www.teleste.com/index.phtml?page_id=1111&navi_id=1111&
http://www.metrobility.com/products/cwdm.htm
http://www.excelight.com/products/passive/cwdmmux.asp

http://www.zhone.com/products/gigamux/gm6400/index.html
http://www.zhone.com/products/gigamux/gm50/index.html

http://www.fiberdyne.com/products/gateway.html


42. How to Setup a Pre-Paid Card System to use with a Wireless Hotspot

http://jabali.net/~carl/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=20
http://jabali.net/~carl/phpMyPrepaid/test/phpMyPrepaid/index.php


43. Motorola WR850G



Doc & Soft:
http://broadband.motorola.com/consumers/support/default.asp?SupportSection=HomeNetworking

Tootja leht:
http://broadband.motorola.com/consumers/products/WR850g/

--M2rkused--

LAN'i default IP:
192.168.10.1/.0
NB: DHCPd enabled.
Default user/pass:
admin/motorola

OpenWRT experimental + WR850G v2:
http://openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/Hardware/Motorola/WR850G

Juttu OpenWRTst:
http://openwrt.bumpclub.ee/userguide.html
http://linux.ee/linksys_wrt54g
http://www.xs4all.nl/~rop/openwrt/
http://openwrt.org/wiki/
http://openwrt.org/OpenWrtPackages
http://openwrt.org/OpenWrtFaq
http://openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs
http://wiki.openwrt.org/TableOfHardware
http://openwrt.bumpclub.ee/testleviala/
http://downloads.openwrt.org/people/mbm/openwrt.html

Katsetus OpenWRT experimental'iga:
Igaks juhuks panin "squashfs" image:
http://openwrt.org/downloads/experimental/bin/openwrt-motorola-squashfs.bin
Kohalik koopia sellest:
http://86.110.37.162/openwrt

Märkus: Debrick/upgrade:
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?pid=10048#p10048

Upgrade 5.13'st 6nnestus teha brauseriga - .bin tuli muuta .trx'iks. Vastavalt
soovitustele panin WAN'i otsale eelnevalt staatilise IP aadressi.

NB: Esialgu tuleb seadmesse siseneda telnet'iga, hiljem saab ainult ssh.

0. Igaks petteks panin "nvram set boot_wait=on; nvram commit".
1. Firstboot k2sku k2ivitades v2ideti, et see on juba tehtud (miski leht
kirjutas, et see tehaksegi automaatselt).
2. "adminpasswd" k2sku ei ole olemas. On tavaline "passwd".
3. Reboot k2sk ei taasta purgi LAN poole yhendusi ning vaja vool ise kyljest katkuda
v6i LAN ots t6sta teise porti.
NB: See v6ib olla ka Win2000 h2da, aga vaja oodata kuni raip teatab, et net
on maas ning alles, siis yhendada vool v6i panna LAN ots tagasi...

PS: Ei ole DHCP deemonit, ssh on WAN otsal keelatud ning telnet on ka
"keelatud".

4. Softiga majandamine: "ipkg list", "ipkg update", "ipkg install paki_nimi".

"wl" paki lisamine ( http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?t=184853 ):
Otsing aadressil http://nthill.free.fr/openwrt/tracker/search/?query=wl&b=search
andis mitu WL asukohta, aga valisin k6ige suurema (ehk on uusim) ning tegevusk2ik:

a) RO faili kustutamine ja RW faili "tekitamine":
rm /etc/ipkg.conf
cp /rom/etc/ipkg.conf /etc/ipkg.conf

b) Ametlikus OpenWRT distributsioonis ei ole WL'i, et seda ikkagi saada
lisasin /etc/ipkg.conf faili yhe rea:
src storm http://tornado.stormchasers.dk/openwrt

NB: Vaja veidigi vi'd osata:
1. Sisestus - i
2. Salvesta ja v2lju - [esc]:x
3. V2lju niisama - :q
4. T2he kustutamine [ctrl][backspace]

ehk faili sisu sai selline:

src experimental http://openwrt.org/downloads/experimental/bin/packages
src storm http://tornado.stormchasers.dk/openwrt
dest root /
dest ram /tmp

c) Siis j2i veel teha:
ipkg update
ipkg install wl

Ning WL ongi olemas!

5. Kui firewall ei meeldi, siis lihtsaim viis see keelata:
rm /etc/init.d/S45firewall

NB: Selle saab ka taastada:
ln -s /rom/etc/init.d/S45firewall /etc/init.d/S45firewall

6. SSH WANi poolele:
cp /rom/etc/init.d/S45firewall /etc/init.d/
vim /etc/init.d/S45firewall

Ning muuda "Allow SSH from WAN" read sellisteks:
iptables -t nat -A prerouting_rule -i $WAN -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A input_rule -i $WAN -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT

7. Telnet'i lubamine:
rm /etc/init.d/S50telnet
cp /rom/etc/init.d/S50telnet /etc/init.d/
vim /etc/init.d/S50telnet

Ning muuda viimane rida selliseks:
/usr/sbin/telnetd

NB: Telnet ei kysi passwordi!

8. Vim'ist k6rini ehk "joe" install:
vim /etc/ipkg.conf

Ning lisa:
src eviljazz http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages

Edasi:
ipkg update
ipkg install joe

9. IpTraf (on olemas eviljazz repositor'is):
ipkg install iptraf

!!! Igasugu pakkide lisamisel j2lgi, et flash t2is ei saaks !!!

"Client mode" - http://www.hackaday.com/entry/1234000690043237/

Access Point mode:

lan_ifname=br0
wifi_ifname=
wl0_mode=ap
lan_proto=dhcp
lan_ip=
wifi_proto=

Clent mode:

M2rkus: vlan0 on LAN ja eth1 on WLAN

lan_ifname=vlan0
wifi_ifname=eth1
wl0_mode=sta
lan_proto=static
lan_ip=
wifi_proto=dhcp

wl scan; sleep 1; wl scanresults
wl join sinu_ssid

Pilte:
http://ranume.radionet.ee/img/wr850g_mem.jpg
http://ranume.radionet.ee/img/wr850g_mem_b.jpg
http://ranume.radionet.ee/img/wr850g_pwr.jpg
http://ranume.radionet.ee/img/wr850g_pwr_b.jpg


44. Motorola WE800G



Doc & Soft:
http://broadband.motorola.com/consumers/support/default.asp?SupportSection=HomeNetworking
PS: Miskip2rast ei ole sellele seadmele uusi firmwaresid ega ka viidatud GPL
softi...

Tootja leht:
http://broadband.motorola.com/consumers/products/we800g/

--M2rkused--

LAN'i default IP:
192.168.30.1/.0
Default user/pass:
admin/motorola

Seadmel mida torkisin on firmware v2.0 Aug 05, 2003 ning toimib debug menyy:
http://ip_aadress/frame_debug.asp
"ls" andis vihje "varjatud funktsioonidele":
http://ip_aadress/status.asp ja muud .asp failid.
Selles kastis on v2hemasti 3 erineva firmware j22nused ning paljud neist tegelikult toimivad on iseasi...

NB: "wl txpwr" k2sk t2itsa k2rab.


45. nvram variables

wl0_ssid - SSID


46. How to fix a bricked WRT?


RBorge kirjutab ( http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=55086#55086 ):

I fixed it. I am going to post the procedure that I used. I realize that
alot of persons on the forum are IT, however, I suspect that an equal number
are similiar to me...above average in computer literacy, brave enough to
play around but not educated enough to completely recover when the going
gets tough. To those persons who fit that description, this is for you (aka
"fixing a bricked WRT54GS for dummies" :

First of all, may I strongly advise you that when changes are made to the
router, wait until the power light stops blinking before you hit the
"continue" button on the screen (sometimes it takes an additional 10-15
seconds). I believe that the screen leads the router in "readiness" by a
significant amount of time and your better off letting the router finish its
business before asking it to move on.

If your "upgrade fails" and you can still access the device by its IP, this
is not for you. I had a constantly flashing power light and couldn't
communicate with it at all.

Go to Start---run--cmd--type: ping 192.168.1.1 If the operation "times out"
then you need to try to reset the router in a number of ways described in
these forums (long hold on the reset button, hold reset button before
plugging in power and then releasing after 5 seconds etc). None of these
worked for me. I resorted to opening the case and looking for the "flash
chip" (it says so on its surface" and finding pins # 15 and 16 (fairly
clearly labeled). Take a pointy metal object and "short out" these 2
connections and then plug in the power. After power is on, you can remove
the sharp metal object. Try to ping the router again. This time I was
successful. I still could not communicate with the router, however, and the
power light kept flashing.

Download a copy of the OEM firmware and unzip it. Rename it code.bin and
then place the file in the C:\document and settings\user (where user is the
person logged on to the computer...in my case the file was C:\documents and
settings\Rick)

Now go to Start--Run---cmd---and then type dir (for directory). The code.bin
file should be part of the list of files that now pops up. It will probably
be named code.bin.bin. If you see the file, your getting close. Type the
following: tftp -i 192.168.1.1 put code.bin.bin. (no last period in the
command line). Dont hit enter yet!!! Unplug the router. When the router is
replugged in and you see the lights come on, hit enter (immediately). If you
time it right, the following will pop up: Transfer successful 3601408 bytes
in 8 seconds (I was successful on the first try). Watch the router and wait
1-2 minutes. The power light will become solid !!!. Unplug it and replug it.
Again, wait 1-2 minutes until it "chills out". Now type in the IP address
and Voila!!! $80 saved.

Good luck. Any derivations needed from the above formula are above my head
as I seriously consider myself a "dummy".

Rick

bbarrera kirjutab ( http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=56998#56998 ):

A power outage left a client's wrt54gs in a "bricked" state with Power light
flashing, DMZ light turning on and off, and no WLAN light. The LAN ports
worked but no http/telnet/ssh management.

How I fixed it today (and used same procedure in past):

1. Did power-on reset at least 5 times. Still unable to manage wrt54 or get
a DHCP lease. No network traffic seen by Ethereal on my PC.

At this point I decided to search Sveasoft forums and Internet for advice.
The best instructions I found are at Hyperwrt website:
http://www.hyperdrive.be/hyperwrt/index.php?page=how-to

2. Followed Case 2 instructions at Hyperwrt site: downloaded Linksys
tftp.exe and 2.07.1 firmware. Configured WinXP to use static IP per
instructions. Rebooted wrt54 and then ran tftp. Firmware successfully loaded
but still no web/ssh/telnet management.

3. Power-on reset. Still no mgmt. Ran tftp again. Power-on reset again.
Still no mgmt. Ran tftp again... Did the reset/tftp procedure about 5 times
and finally the dmz light was off and WLAN light was on! Logged into web
interface and uploaded Alchemy firmware.

Note: I used tftp after router booted (no hurry up and do it during boot
wait). WinXP took interface down when wrt54 rebooted and it takes 15-20
seconds before WinXP brings Ethernet back up.

I've "bricked" wrt54 units at least 10 times over the last 6 months. Each
time I used the procedure above and never needed to open wrt54 case to short
pins. Patience and persistence is key to recovering.

ernc kirjutab ( http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?p=59701#59701 ):

ok, got the answer to the above, many thanks to a pdf at trilug.org on
unbricking a wrt54gs.

The key points are:

1. a. Start a continuous ping to 192.168.1.1 on your host computer.
b. short pins 15 and 16 on the on outline for the old intel flashram (see
below) with some metal pointy thingy
c. power on the wrt54gs
d. KEEP PINS 15 and 16 SHORTED until the pings start returning. (about 5-8
seconds on mine)
e. after the pings are returned, can unshort the pins.

d was the missing piece of information.

2. Don't count the pins on the chip, count the pins on the 'old' outline,
the ones with the white hash marks every five pins, and -not- the existing
flashram (ymmv on this one)

Hope this helps someone else.

http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?p=2063213#2063213

NB: Sama teema, aga OpenWRTga:
http://voidmain.is-a-geek.net/redhat/wrt54g_revival.html

Linuxis tftp'ga tehes on käsk selline:
tftp 192.168.1.1 -c put WRT54G_3.03.9_ETSI_code.bin

NB: Linksysi vanemate kastidega tftp'ga ei saa üle 2,5 MB faili liigutada.
Uutel pidavat see piirang puuduma.

Vaata ka:
http://www.wifi.ee/foorum2/viewtopic.php?p=89#89


47. WEP & WPA nõrgad kohad
http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?p=2050211#2050211


48. Suurema kohtvõrgu ehitamine
http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?p=2050682#2050682


49. Linux + VLAN
http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/7268
http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/download/802.1Q-1998.pdf
http://scry.wanfear.com/~greear/vlan.html


50. Miks ei ole LAN sobivaim meedium Intereneti jagamiseks ehk viirused sind hukutavad.

Helistas yks munitsipaalinterneti kasutaja ning kurtis, et temal ei ole juba
5 p2eva Internetti ning tuldugu tema seadmeid vahetama. 100+ km s6itu ning
nigu lupsti kohal.
Pingid AP ja GW pihta n2itasid jubedat paketi kadu ning j2i mulje, et
aparaatus (Linksys WET11) on pihta saanud. Samas selle seadme vahetus ning isegi karmima
antenni panek ei andnud teistsugust tulemust. K6ikse imelikum oli, et
saatjani oli ~150 meetrit ning otsen2htavus olemas. Isegi AP sai
vahetatud... Kliendi massinast WETi pingib, aga brauseriga ligi ei lase.
Kahtlused, et massina endaga ei ole k6ik korras leidsid
kinnitust kui sai Task Manageri vaadatud ning network traffic'u pilti
silmatud - liiklus LAN'i otsal 2 Mbit/s!

Kliendi massinal LAN ots kyljest ning l2ppar "toru" kylge - Internet tuleb
ilusti ning muresid pole. Ruuteri logi n2itas, et antud aadressil tegutseb
arvatavasti miski v6rgu sk2nnija (loob yhendusi suvalisetele sisevgu
aadresside pordi 445 pihta), aga viiruset6rjur (NAV) seda ei leidnud.
Task Managerist sai k2sitsi protsesse killitud, regedit'iga antud proge
k2ivitamisest k6rvaldatud ning Windows update'ile allutatud.

Vanad seadmed sai tagasi pandud ning selleks korraks olukord lahenes, aga
kuidas v2ltida sellise olukorra kordumist?

Tundub, et lihtne see ei ole. Interneti kiirusepiirangud on tehtud ruuteris,
aga kooma t6mmati AP. AP'l on "AP Isolation" peal ning viirus naabrimehele
ehk ei levi, aga AP enda pihta v6ib karjuda kuipalju ja kui kiiresti tahad.

Yheks variandiks oleks vaja piirata kliendi kiirused juba kliendiseadmes, et
kliendi poolt tulev liiklus ei saaks AP'd kooma t6mmata. Sel juhul tuleb
loobuda igasugu LAN sildade kasutamisest ning a'la muditud WRT peale ehitada
miski arendus, aga kes selle kinni maksab? Kuidas sa sunnid kasutaja seda
purki ostma?

Loo moraal - manageerimata (munitsipaal)v6rgud on suht kurba seisu m22ratud.
Miski aeg k2ib v6rk ilusti, aga populaarsuse kasvades l2heb olemine paratamatult hapuks.


51. 802.11a sagedusplaan

Ameerika:

5.150 ~ 5.250 Ghz ("lower band") 4 kanalit (piirang 50 mW);
5.250 ~ 5.350 Ghz ("middle band") 4 kanalit (piirang 250 mW);
5.725~ 5.825 Ghz ("higher band") 4 kanalit (piirang 1 W);

Euroopa sh. Eesti:

vastavalt MKM m22rusele nr 103

http://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=598354

par 6 lg 3:

(3) HIPERLAN ja teiste analoogsete raadio-kohtvõrkude seadmete puhul
kasutatavad raadiosagedusalad ja lubatud suurimad ekvivalentsed isotroopsed
kiirgusvõimsused on järgmised:
1) 5150–5350 MHz, kiirgusvõimsuse suurim keskväärtus 200 mW 14 kanali või
sagedusriba 330 MHz korral (ainult siseruumides kasutamiseks);
2) 5470–5725 MHz, kiirgusvõimsuse suurim keskväärtus 1 W;

ETSI piiranguna (kõik Euroopas kasutatavad seadmed peavad alluma sellele) on veel,
et seade peab oskama:
1. Dynamic Channel Selection (DCS) ehk peab oskama raadiokanalit ise valida;
2. Transmit Power Control (TPC) ehk peab oskama "rääkida" nii valjusti kui
vajalik ning nii vaikselt kui võimalik;
3. Radar Detection ehk oskus sõjameeste ja lendurite jalust kaduda;

NB: Need kõik on Euroopas kohustulikud ning kui seade neid ei tee, siis seda
Euroopas (ka Eestis) kasutada ei tohi!


52. MICROWAVE OVENS AND MAGNETIC FIELDS
http://www.ee.washington.edu/conselec/CE/sp95reports/espinosa/body4.htm
http://n5xu.ae.utexas.edu/rfsafety/

via http://www.sveasoft.com/modules/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=12519

http://www.ee.washington.edu/conselec/CE/sp95reports/espinosa/body3.htm


53. GSM & Co.
http://denbeste.nu/cd_log_entries/2002/10/GSM3G.shtml


54. WR850G ja Openwrt Whiterussian RC3
Ehk uus proov Openwrt'ga.

WAN aadress paika ja seegi kord squashfs image brauseriga seadmesse (eelnevalt ikka .bin -> .trx)
http://ranume.radionet.ee/openwrt/rc3/

Miski aeg ootamist ja seadmele taaskäivitus (a'la saba seinast).
PS: Telnet'iga saab ligi vaid LAN poolelt.

"Boot Wait" teema:
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get boot_wait
off
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set boot_wait=on
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get boot_wait
on
root@OpenWrt:/# reboot

Raadio osa NVRAM muutujad:
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram show|grep wl0
wl0_frameburst=off
wl0_infra=1
wl0_country_code=US
wl0_ifname=eth1
wl0_mode=ap
wl0_gmode=1
wl0_macEnable=0
wl0_ssid=motorola D82
wl0_dtim=3
wl0id=0x4320
wl0_key1=
wl0_key2=
wl0_key3=
wl0_key4=
wl0_plcphdr=long
wl0_rate=0
wl0_closed=0
wl0gpio0=0
wl0_macmode=disabled
wl0gpio1=0
wl0_radioids=BCM2050
wl0_phytype=g
wl0gpio2=0
wl0gpio3=0
wl0_lazywds=0
size: 10110 bytes (22658 left)
wl0gpio4=0
wl0gpio5=0
wl0_key_input_method=0
wl0_antdiv=-1
wl0_wpa_psk=
wl0_unit=0
wl0_wds=
wl0_auth=0
wl0_radius_port=1812
wl0_macmodeEnable=0
wl0_radius_ipaddr=0.0.0.0
wl0_key_strength=0
wl0_phytypes=g
wl0_frag=2346
wl0_wep=off
wl0_country=USA
wl0_rateset=default
wl0_mac=
wl0_passphrase=motorola
wl0_rts=2347
wl0_wpa_gtk_rekey=300
wl0_key=1
wl0_radio=1
wl0_wds0=
wl0_wds1=
wl0_bcn=100
wl0_wds2=
wl0_wds3=
wl0_hwaddr=00:0C:E5:4D:ED:82
wl0_gmode_protection=auto
lan_hwnames=et0 il0 wl0 wl1
wl0_mac_index=0
wl0_radius_key=
wl0_corerev=7
wl0_channel=11
wl0_auth_mode=disabled
root@OpenWrt:/#

root@OpenWrt:/# iwconfig
lo no wireless extensions.

eth0 no wireless extensions.

eth1 IEEE 802.11-DS ESSID:"motorola D82"
Mode:Master Frequency:2.462 GHz Access Point: 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:83
Tx-Power:31 dBm
RTS thr=2347 B Fragment thr=2346 B
Encryption key:off
Link Quality:0 Signal level:0 Noise level:159
Rx invalid nwid:0 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0
Tx excessive retries:5 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0

br0 no wireless extensions.

vlan0 no wireless extensions.

vlan1 no wireless extensions.

root@OpenWrt:/#

root@OpenWrt:/# ifconfig
br0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:83
inet addr:192.168.10.1 Bcast:192.168.10.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:924 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:499 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:65727 (64.1 KiB) TX bytes:51583 (50.3 KiB)

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:83
UP BROADCAST RUNNING PROMISC MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1169 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:738 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:102829 (100.4 KiB) TX bytes:64591 (63.0 KiB)
Interrupt:5 Base address:0x2000

eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:83
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:111
TX packets:186 errors:5 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:18122 (17.6 KiB)
Interrupt:4 Base address:0x1000

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:237 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:237 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:26544 (25.9 KiB) TX bytes:26544 (25.9 KiB)

vlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:83
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:1167 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:500 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:81649 (79.7 KiB) TX bytes:53643 (52.3 KiB)

vlan1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:84
inet addr:192.168.0.101 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:238 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:10948 (10.6 KiB)

root@OpenWrt:/#

Kast AP'na kaima:
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set wl0_mode=ap

SSID muutmine:
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get wl0_ssid
motorola D82
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set wl0_ssid="katse"
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get wl0_ssid
katse

Kanali vahetus:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wl0_channel=10
Legacy B mode:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wl0_gmode=0
AP isolation:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wl0_ap_isolate=1
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:/# reboot

Joe install:
Pakkide listi mudimine (j2rgnevad 2 rida on juhul kui kasutad squashfs firmware't):
root@OpenWrt:~# rm /etc/ipkg.conf
root@OpenWrt:~# cp /rom/etc/ipkg.conf /etc/ipkg.conf

VI Manual: http://www.cs.fsu.edu/general/vimanual.html

root@OpenWrt:~# vim /etc/ipkg.conf
i src eviljazz http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages [esc]:x

M2rkus:
Kui niimoodi ei lasta seda faili mudida, siis tee sedapsi:
cp /etc/ipkg.conf /etc/ipkg.conf.old
echo "src eviljazz http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages" > /tmp/$$; cat /etc/ipkg.conf >> /tmp/$$; cp /tmp/$$ /etc/ipkg.conf

root@OpenWrt:~# ipkg update
Downloading http://downloads.openwrt.org/whiterussian/packages/Packages
Updated list of available packages in /usr/lib/ipkg/lists/whiterussian
Downloading
http://downloads.openwrt.org/whiterussian/packages/non-free/Packages
Updated list of available packages in /usr/lib/ipkg/lists/non-free
Downloading http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages/Packages
Updated list of available packages in /usr/lib/ipkg/lists/eviljazz
Successfully terminated.
root@OpenWrt:~# ipkg install joe
Installing joe (3.1) to root...
Downloading http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages/joe_3.1_mipsel.ipk
Installing ncurses (5.2) to root...
Downloading
http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages/ncurses_5.2_mipsel.ipk
Configuring joe
Configuring ncurses
Successfully terminated.
root@OpenWrt:~#

WAN ja LAN aadressid:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan_ipaddr=192.168.0.101
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan_gateway=192.168.0.1
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set lan_ipaddr=192.168.100.1
DNS aadressid:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan_dns="86.110.32.1 194.204.0.1 0.0.0.0"
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:~# reboot

Jamamine DHCPga (otsest abi ei ole, aga andis vihjeid):
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?pid=798#p798

DHCP serveri soft dnsmasq
http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/dnsmasq

root@OpenWrt:~# rm /etc/dnsmasq.conf
root@OpenWrt:~# cp /rom/etc/dnsmasq.conf /etc/dnsmasq.conf
root@OpenWrt:~# joe /etc/dnsmasq.conf

dhcp-range=192.168.100.129,192.168.100.191,255.255.255.0,1800s
dhcp-leasefile=/tmp/dhcp.leases

Staatilise IP andmine DHCP'ga:
root@OpenWrt:~# echo "00:2f:e5:52:06:78 192.168.100.100" >> /etc/ethers

(Igaks juhuks muudan) WAN aadress on tegelikult ju staatiline, mitte dynaamiline:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan0_proto=static
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan0_real_proto=static
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan_real_proto=static
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram commit

root@OpenWrt:~# cd /etc/init.d/
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# rm S50dnsmasq
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# echo "dnsmasq" > S50dnsmasq
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# chmod +x S50dnsmasq
root@OpenWrt:~# reboot

WWW lehe tegemine:
root@OpenWrt:~# echo "Tyhi koht." > /www/index.html

http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtFaq
http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtNVRAM
http://wiki.openwrt.org/ClientModeHowto
http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/Configuration#NetworkInterfaceNames
http://wiki.openwrt.org/HowtoVlans
http://openwrt.org/forum/viewtopic.php?id=2717 - VLANid
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=2711 - WRT54G skeem ja VLANid.
http://openwrt.org/forum/viewtopic.php?pid=14998#p14998


55. "Turvasysteemid" ja WiFi saatja
Helistas yks tuttav ning kurtis, et ta WiFi saatja levi kadus ootamatult - juba
kuid oli ilusaste korralikult nettus olemas, aga nyyd pole.
Tegi restarte ja muid liigutusi, aga abi ei midagi. Kuna ennegi olnud, et
aparaatuse raadio on pehmeks muutunud, siis soovitasin tal osta uus seade.
Ostiski, aga sama lugu - levi ei ole. Lappariga kohale minnes ning lausa
saatja korval olles, selgus yks huvitav asi - saatja ei taha saata beacon
signaale. Vaid paar korda minutis tuleb midagi, aga muidu on taiesti vakka.
Netstumbler muid saatjaid ei leidnud, aga igaks juhuks valisin saatjale korgema
sageduse ning saatja hakkaski korralikult toimima. Kahtlus on, et
keski naaber pani endale miski 2,4 GHz peal tootava turvasysteemi, see
tombas umbe 2 esimest 2,4 GHz sagedusala kanalit ning WRT54G ei saanud enam
loogile.


56. Pajatavad WEPist ja selle turvalisest...
http://www.kivisaar.com/article/WEP_-_olematu_turvalisus/96.html

57. Katrina Photos
http://www.wirelessestimator.com/t_content.cfm?pagename=Katrina%20photos

58. Kummuli moblamast
http://www.delfi.ee/news/paevauudised/eesti/article.php?id=11646676
http://www.zone.ee/salf/

59. 5 GHz DFS
http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?t=217445


60. WR850G + WR RC4
http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/Hardware/Motorola/WR850G
Upgrade nagu ennegi, aga seekord RC4 peale.
Esimese liigutusena:
[ivo@sarmax ~]$ telnet 192.168.7.200
Trying 192.168.7.200...
Connected to 192.168.7.200 (192.168.7.200).
Escape character is '^]'.
=== IMPORTANT ============================
Use 'passwd' to set your login password
this will disable telnet and enable SSH
------------------------------------------


BusyBox v1.00 (2005.11.23-21:46+0000) Built-in shell (ash)
Enter 'help' for a list of built-in commands.

_______ ________ __
| |.-----.-----.-----.| | | |.----.| |_
| - || _ | -__| || | | || _|| _|
|_______|| __|_____|__|__||________||__| |____|
|__| W I R E L E S S F R E E D O M
WHITE RUSSIAN (RC4) -------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------
root@OpenWrt:/# passwd
Changing password for root
Enter the new password (minimum of 5, maximum of 8 characters)
Please use a combination of upper and lower case letters and numbers.
Enter new password:
Bad password: too short.

Warning: weak password (continuing).
Re-enter new password:
Password changed.
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get boot_wait
off
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set boot_wait=on
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:/# reboot

Edasi juba tegutsemine SSH'ga.

RC4 on olemas ka veebiliides!
Katse saada klienti:

Configuration: updating...

wl0_mode="sta"
wl0_ssid="test"
wl0_akm="none"
wl0_wep="disabled"
Committing NVRAM ...
Reloading wireless settings ...
cat: /var/run/wifi.pid: No such file or directory

Miskipärast ei tööta see asi justkui õigesti (ühe seadme "brickisin" -
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=3407 )
Teisega jõudsin seisu kus justkui raadio on ikka LANi poolel, aga LANi
küljes olevat arvutit ei saa üle raadio pingida. Samal ajal mõlemad seadmed
saavad ligi WR850G'le.

Müstika...

Lootuses saada "routed client mode" ( http://wiki.openwrt.org/ClientModeHowto ):

root@OpenWrt:~# rm /etc/init.d/S50dnsmasq
root@OpenWrt:~# cp /rom/etc/init.d/S50dnsmasq /etc/init.d/
root@OpenWrt:~# chmod -x /etc/init.d/S50dnsmasq

root@OpenWrt:~# nvram get wl0_mode
sta
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram get wl0_ssid
test
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram get wan_ifnames
vlan1
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set wan_ifname=eth1
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram get lan_ifname
br0
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram get lan_ifnames
vlan0 eth1 wds0.2 wds0.3 wds0.4 wds0.5
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set lan_ifnames="vlan0 wds0.2 wds0.3 wds0.4 wds0.5"
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:~# reboot

Tundub, et "routed client mode" töötab.

PS: Kast on vaikeväärtusena gateway mode's ning sellest vabanemiseks:
root@OpenWrt:~# rm /etc/init.d/S45firewall
root@OpenWrt:~# cp /rom/etc/init.d/S45firewall /etc/init.d/
root@OpenWrt:~# chmod -x /etc/init.d/S45firewall

Lihtne S45firewall, mis ka NATi korraldab:
----8<------#!/bin/sh
. /etc/functions.sh

WAN=$(nvram get wan_ifname)
LAN=$(nvram get lan_ifname)
LANnet1=192.168.1.0/24
LANnet2=192.168.0.0/24

for T in filter nat; do
iptables -t $T -F
iptables -t $T -X
done

ifconfig br0:1 192.168.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0

sleep 3

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $WAN -s $LANnet1 -j MASQUERADE

sleep 3

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $WAN -s $LANnet2 -j MASQUERADE

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward

----8<------

Väike eetriskänn:

root@OpenWrt:~# iwlist eth1 scanning
eth1 Scan completed :
Cell 01 - Address: 00:13:21:75:1A:F0
ESSID:"test"
Channel:11
Quality:0/0 Signal level:-76 dBm Noise level:-88 dBm
Bit Rate:1 Mb/s
Bit Rate:2 Mb/s
Bit Rate:5.5 Mb/s
Bit Rate:6 Mb/s
Bit Rate:9 Mb/s
Bit Rate:11 Mb/s
Bit Rate:12 Mb/s
Bit Rate:18 Mb/s
Bit Rate:24 Mb/s
Bit Rate:36 Mb/s
Bit Rate:48 Mb/s
Bit Rate:54 Mb/s
Cell 02 - Address: 00:40:96:53:72:B7
ESSID:"katse"
Channel:2
Quality:0/0 Signal level:-75 dBm Noise level:-91 dBm
Bit Rate:1 Mb/s
Bit Rate:2 Mb/s
Bit Rate:5.5 Mb/s
Bit Rate:11 Mb/s

root@OpenWrt:~#


61. OpenWRT RC4 + Motorola WR850G + VLANimine

Firmware uuendus RC4'le ja Boot_Wait lubada:

root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set boot_wait=on
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram commit

Firewall minema:

root@OpenWrt:/# cd /etc/init.d/
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# ls
S05nvram S40network S50dnsmasq S50httpd S60cron rcS
S10boot S45firewall S50dropbear S50telnet S99done
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# rm S45firewall
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d#

http://voidmain.is-a-geek.net/i/WRT54_sw2_internal_architecture.png
http://openwrt.bumpclub.ee/testleviala/
http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/Configuration

root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram get wan_ifname
vlan1
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram show|grep vlan1
wanif=vlan1
wan0_ifname=vlan1
size: 10231 bytes (22537 left)
pppoe_ifname=vlan1
wan_ifnames=vlan1
vlan1hwname=et0
vlan1ports=4 5
wan_ifname=vlan1
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d#

root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram show|grep vlan
wanif=vlan1
wan0_ifname=vlan1
vlan0ports=0 1 2 3 5*
size: 10231 bytes (22537 left)
lan_ifnames=vlan0 eth1 wds0.2 wds0.3 wds0.4 wds0.5
pppoe_ifname=vlan1
wan_ifnames=vlan1
vlan1hwname=et0
vlan1ports=4 5
wan_ifname=vlan1
vlan0hwname=et0
lanif=vlan0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d#

Paistab, et Motorola tähistab porte erinevalt - switch'i osa
on 0,1,2,3 ning 4 on "WAN". Port 5 on internal port.

root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram show|grep if
wanif=vlan1
wan0_ifname=vlan1
wl0_ifname=eth1
wlif=eth1
size: 10231 bytes (22537 left)
lan_ifnames=vlan0 eth1 wds0.2 wds0.3 wds0.4 wds0.5
pppoe_ifname=vlan1
wan_ifnames=vlan1
lan_ifname=br0
wl_ifname=
wan_ifname=vlan1
lanif=vlan0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d#

Lammutan switch'i laiali. Iga port eraldi:

root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan0ports="3 5*"
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan1ports="4 5"
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan2ports="2 5"
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan3ports="1 5"
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan4ports="0 5"
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan0hwname=et0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan1hwname=et0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan2hwname=et0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan3hwname=et0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram set vlan4hwname=et0
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# reboot
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# Connection closed by foreign host.

"Ta pingib siiski!" ehk LAN sattus porti numbriga 1 (seadme tähistusest
vaadates).

root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get lan_ifname
br0
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get wan_ifname
vlan1
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan1_ifname=vlan2
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan2_ifname=vlan3
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan3_ifname=vlan4
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan1_ipaddr=192.168.100.1
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan2_ipaddr=192.168.101.1
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan3_ipaddr=192.168.102.1
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan1_netmask=255.255.255.0
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan2_netmask=255.255.255.0
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan3_netmask=255.255.255.0
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan1_hwaddr="00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BE"
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan2_hwaddr="00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BF"
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan3_hwaddr="00:0C:E5:4D:ED:C0"
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan1_proto=static
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan2_proto=static
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram set lan3_proto=static
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get lan_hwaddr
00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BC
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get wan_hwaddr
00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BD
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get lan_ipaddr
192.168.10.1
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get wan_ipaddr
192.168.4.199
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get lan_proto
static
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram get wan_proto
static
root@OpenWrt:/# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:/# reboot

Mudida S40network'i, et uued liidesed ka üles tuleks:

root@OpenWrt:/# cd /etc/init.d
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# rm S40network
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# cp /rom/etc/init.d/S40network .
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# vi S40network
i

ifup lan1
ifup lan2
ifup lan3

:x

root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# reboot
root@OpenWrt:/etc/init.d# Connection closed by foreign host.

Uued liidesed ongi olemas:

root@OpenWrt:/# ifconfig
br0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BC
inet addr:192.168.10.1 Bcast:192.168.10.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:89 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:70 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:5940 (5.8 KiB) TX bytes:7104 (6.9 KiB)

eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BC
UP BROADCAST RUNNING PROMISC MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:110 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:79 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:10992 (10.7 KiB) TX bytes:7960 (7.7 KiB)
Interrupt:5 Base address:0x2000

eth1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BC
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:16 errors:67 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:2606 (2.5 KiB)
Interrupt:4 Base address:0x1000

lo Link encap:Local Loopback
inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

vlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BC
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:90 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:79 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:6384 (6.2 KiB) TX bytes:7960 (7.7 KiB)

vlan1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BD
inet addr:192.168.4.199 Bcast:192.168.4.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:17 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:2440 (2.3 KiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

vlan2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BE
inet addr:192.168.100.1 Bcast:192.168.100.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

vlan3 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BF
inet addr:192.168.101.1 Bcast:192.168.101.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

vlan4 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:C0
inet addr:192.168.102.1 Bcast:192.168.102.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

root@OpenWrt:/#

Miskipärast vlan3 interface ei taha pingida...

root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set lan2_hwaddr=00:0C:E5:4D:ED:C1
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram commit
root@OpenWrt:~# reboot

Host'i ARP on "natuke" imelik:
[root@jeekim root]# arp -a
(192.168.4.33) at 00:10:DB:2F:20:E0 [ether] on eth0
(192.168.10.1) at 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:C1 [ether] on eth0
(192.168.102.1) at 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BD [ether] on eth0
(192.168.101.1) at 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:C1 [ether] on eth0
(192.168.100.1) at 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BD [ether] on eth0
(192.168.4.199) at 00:0C:E5:4D:ED:BD [ether] on eth0
[root@jeekim root]#

[root@jeekim root]# ping 192.168.101.1
PING 192.168.101.1 (192.168.101.1) 56(84) bytes of data.

--- 192.168.101.1 ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 0 received, 100% packet loss, time 1016ms

[root@jeekim root]# arp -d 192.168.101.1
[root@jeekim root]# ping 192.168.101.1
PING 192.168.101.1 (192.168.101.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.101.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=1.39 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.101.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.703 ms

--- 192.168.101.1 ping statistics ---
2 packets transmitted, 2 received, 0% packet loss, time 1005ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.703/1.051/1.399/0.348 ms, pipe 2
[root@jeekim root]# root@jeekim root]#

Jama. Miks on valdavaks WAN'i MAC aadress?

Miski jama on Motorola poolelgi:

root@OpenWrt:~# arp
IP address HW type Flags HW address Mask Device
192.168.102.123 0x1 0x0 00:00:00:00:00:00 X vlan4
192.168.101.123 0x1 0x0 00:00:00:00:00:00 X vlan3
192.168.4.33 0x1 0x2 00:10:DB:2F:20:E0 X vlan1
192.168.100.123 0x1 0x2 00:04:76:8E:0A:B0 X vlan1
192.168.4.10 0x1 0x2 00:04:76:8E:0A:B0 X vlan1
192.168.100.123 0x1 0x0 00:00:00:00:00:00 X vlan2
root@OpenWrt:~# ping 192.168.100.123
PING 192.168.100.123 (192.168.100.123): 56 data bytes

--- 192.168.100.123 ping statistics ---
10 packets transmitted, 0 packets received, 100% packet loss
root@OpenWrt:~#


62. Cantenna hjumor
http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?p=2471005#2471005


63. Kanali valikust...
Kuna neid 2,4 GHz saatjaid ilmub pidevalt juurde, siis on v2ga v2he
selliseid kohti, kus piisab vaid esialgsest saatja kanali m22ramisest.
Pidevalt tuleb lingi kvaliteedil pilk peal hoida (kasv6i pingides)
ning anomaaliate korral (packet loss on suur v6i pingi ajad k6iguvad suures
piirides) proovida kanalit vahetada, sest sellest v6ib abi olla.


64. OpenWRT RC4 ja client mode hädad.
OpenWRT RC4 (ja eelnevad) client mode on tõsise veaga - AP signaal peab
olema seadme käivitamise hetkel eetrist leitav, vastasel juhul ei panda
client mode't käima. Väidetavalt saab see häda kõrvaldatud järgmise RC'ga.

Selle jamaga võitlemiseks tegin skripti ja lisasin selle
/etc/init.d/S45firewall faili:
----8<------
echo '#!/bin/ash
AAA=1
while [ $AAA -eq 1 ]
do
GW=$(nvram get wan_gateway)
sleep 60
while [ $? -eq 0 ]
do
sleep 30
ping -c 10 $GW
done
Check=$(nvram get ping_watchdog)
if [ "$Check" = "1" ]
then
reboot
fi
done' > /tmp/uurer

chmod +x /tmp/uurer
/tmp/uurer &
----8<------

Skripti lubamine:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set ping_watchdog=1
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram commit

Skripti keelamine:
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram set ping_watchdog=0
root@OpenWrt:~# nvram commit


65. DD-WRT
http://dd-wrt.gruftie.com/dd-wrtv2/index.php
Wiki:
http://wrt-wiki.bsr-clan.de/index.php?title=Main_Page

66. Client statics
WiViz:
http://students.washington.edu/natetrue/wiviz/
Monowall:
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=1686


67. Motorola WE800G ruutiv klient, LAN teeb DHCPd ja ka NATi
Softi uuendus on kirjas:
http://wiki.openwrt.org/OpenWrtDocs/Hardware/Motorola/WE800G
Veidi uuem firmware on:
http://downloads.openwrt.org/people/kaloz/2006-02-06/openwrt-we800g-jffs2.bin

OpenWRT 6petust: http://martybugs.net/wireless/openwrt/

K6ikse uuem kraam:
http://downloads.openwrt.org/people/nbd/

Veebi kaudu seadistan ruuteri parooli, LAN ja WAN aadressid ning traaditu
poole (SSID jms), edasi l2heb k2iku SSH.

Kuna eesm2rgiks on ruutiv klient, siis l6hun silla WLAN'i ja LAN'i vahel:

nvram set lan_ifnames="eth1"
nvram set wifi_ifname=eth2
nvram set wifi_proto=static
nvram commit

Kuna pre-RC5 ei tea midagi WIFI liidesest, siis selle "v2ikese" h2kiga v6tan
kasututusse WAN liidese seaded ehk /etc/init.d/S40network saab enda algusesse
v2ikese t2ienduse:
---8<----
wifi_ip=$(echo $(nvram get wan_ipaddr))
nvram set wifi_ipaddr=$wifi_ip
wifi_mask=$(echo $(nvram get wan_netmask))
nvram set wifi_netmask=$wifi_mask
wifi_gateway=$(echo $(nvram get wan_gateway))
nvram set wifi_gateway=$wifi_gateway
wifi_proto=$(echo $(nvram get wan_proto))
nvram set wifi_proto=$wifi_proto
nvram commit
---8<----

Kuna olemasolevat DHCPd ei saa veebi kaudu muuta ja osa DHCP deemoni seadeid
ei saa kasutada, siis k6rvaldan olemasoleva DNSMASQ skripti:

cd /etc/init.d
chmod -x S50dnsmasq
mv S50dnsmasq S50dnsmasq.old
echo dnsmasq>S50dnsmasq
chmod +x S50dnsmasq

/etc/dnsmasq.conf saab endasse sellised read (kui LAN on 10.0.0.1 ja DNS on
Uninet/EENET):
---8<----
dhcp-range=10.0.0.2,10.0.0.254,255.255.255.0,12h
dhcp-option=6,194.204.0.1,193.40.56.245
---8<----

Vana tulemyyr minema:

cd /etc/init.d
chmod -x S45firewall
mv S45firewall S45firewall.old

/etc/init.d/S45firewall saab selline:
---8<----
WIFI=$(nvram get wifi_ifname)
LAN=$(nvram get lan_ifname)

LANnet=$(nvram get lan_ipaddr)

for T in filter nat; do
iptables -t $T -F
iptables -t $T -X
done

iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $WIFI -s $LANnet/24 -j MASQUERADE

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
---8<----

NB: IP maski paneb see skript vaikimisi 255.255.255.0.


Lisaks:
Kui VI ei ole s6ber, siis paigalda JOE.

vi /etc/ipkg.conf

Ning lisa selle faili algusesse:
src eviljazz http://www.katastrophos.net/wrt54g/packages

Kuidas?
1. Klahv [i] on insert ehk faili sisu muutmine;
2. Klahv [esc] viib sind insert'ist v2lja;
3. Klahvid [:] ja [q] on v2ljumine VI'st;
4. Klahvid [:] ja [x] on v2ljumine VI'st salvestamisega;

Edasi:
ipkg update
ipkg install joe


68. Pikk link
http://www.rflinx.com/help/calculations/#antenna_height
OpenWRT:
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?pid=20942#p20942
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?pid=20914#p20914
http://www.oreillynet.com/lpt/a/4085
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?id=4805
MikroTik:
http://forum.mikrotik.com/viewtopic.php?t=8213
http://forum.mikrotik.com/viewtopic.php?t=8140


69. WRT54GL + 3rd party firmware
Hyperwrt +tofu - http://www.polarcloud.com/tofu
NB: tofu't enam ei arendata, thibor v6ttis arenduse yle.
Hyperwrt thibor - http://www.thibor.co.uk/


70. Mastikene
http://www.short-media.com/printcontent.php?print=r&id=301
http://www.short-media.com/forum/showthread.php?p=364351

Tilt Up Tower
http://www.otherpower.com/otherpower_wind_towers.html

HAMi vennad teevad maste:
http://hardware.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=179197&threshold=1&commentsort=0&mode=thread&cid=14847788
http://www.eham.net/reviews/products/34


http://www.digg.com/technology/60_Feet_to_High_Speed:_Man_builds_own_reception_tower

If that tower got hit by lighting, that would be the end. His house would
likely burn down. It's impossible for any tower to take a direct hit and
send it all to the ground.

So the goal is to avoid ever getting hit in the first place by dissipating
the static electricity that the tower builds. Because as some of us know,
that's what lightning is attracted to. And he's clearly done that by
grounding it. So, IT IS safer now.

A couple of points about this little job:

1) it's 60' tower using a single base-plate and as far as I can tell from
the pics is has no guy wires or other form of bracing other than the plate
and a single tension cable attached to his house.. Something like that is
bound to fall over after a few years of fatigue. You have to have a uniform
distribution for the bracing ESPECIALLY when you have accumulated ice.
Personally, I would have just sunk the first half of the bottom section in
the concrete and done away with the plate. It's how we do most of the small
Rohn and Pirod towers.

I tackled a similar project in 2002 to connect me to my office 1.2 miles
across the fields/woods/highway. I ended up at 130 feet and now run it at 54
mbit 802.11g after swapping out the gear recently. I've had a collection of
captioned photos of the building process online for a few years covering
everything from digging the original footers to erecting the tower. I tossed
in a few updated shots this morning:

http://sparhawk.sbc.edu/tower

They are in chronological order with the newest stuff on the last page.

Thought it might interest some folks with similar goals in mind. No, it
wasn't cheap. In excess of $3,000 all told... but worth every penny,
especially since it connects me to a DS3 on the other end. :)

- Aaron

2) Grounding a tower is always the way to go. Again I can't tell from the
pictures but he needs to make sure that he either cadwelds the copper
cabling to the tower or uses a good antioxident if it's a bolt setup. Other
wise the two dissimilar metals will create a galvanic response and oxidize,
losing the grounding in the process. (as an aside when a true communications
tower is constructed, we ground the cabling (outer shielding) as well. at
the top of the cable, the bottom of the line before it bends away from the
tower to the building, and again once inside. Further we ground the cabinets
as well, but on a different ground system. You are creating an attractor for
lightning with a tower but the object is to give the lightning a path of
least resistance away from the equipment. )

I wonder if he approached the church over just putting a pair of WAPs in the
steeple connected back to back for a relay setup? That would have been
1/10th the cost with probably a 1/100th of the labor.

My $.02


Yes he actually made it *safer* by grounding it. The way to make it even
better is to ground each leg to 1-3 ground rods. Then a ground wire needs to
connect the tower to the ground rod for his electric service. Without that
you form a shunt across your equipment to get to this ground.

Contrary to popular belief, a properly grounded tower will not act as a
lightning attractor but will give you a cone of protection. If you would
take a hit it would go straight to ground and will not take out your gear.
Grounding all of your gear is even better protection.

Concrete does not act as a grounding device. If you had a metal rod or tower
touching ground/water through the concrete, the base could possibly explode
if it takes a hit.

I applaud his efforts and hope he will use that tower for other things. A
tri-band HF antenna would be great on top of that!

BTW: this is a free standing designed tower. No guy wires needed.


http://hardware.slashdot.org/hardware/06/03/03/2151259.shtml

This guys tower is going to come down the first time it is iced over and the
wind blows strong. The weak point of the tower is the welded base plate. The
place where the tower meets the ground will have the strongest amount of
stress on it. It will be stress pushing in one direction. If he uses guy
wires it will be even worse. It will be a twisting motion at the base. As
far as I can tell, the site was not slashdot ready, he never used rebar to
make a cage for the base. If he never took the tower completely apart there
could be other weak points he does not even know about. His story should be
a primer of how not to erect a tower.

I had a 48 foot rohn tower I used for Amateur radio use and it was a tad
overloaded. My hole was more of a polygon than a square and besides a very
strong rebar cage for the base and the tower legs which were sunk 3 feet
into the concrete, I used a little over two yards of concrete. This may
sound like overkill but with the tower load I wanted it strong. Good thing.
We had some of the strongest pacific storms after that tower went up. It
took winds in excess of 100MPH. That wind uprooted orchards in our area and
knocked over a few towers. Mine was hardly moving.

Get professional advice if you ever do this

There's a lot of damaging superstitions about lightning. If you're in a
lightning-prone part of the country, try to get your information from
someone who knows physics and electrical engineering. Your recommended
solution should include a ground *field* surrounding the tower,
low-inductance connections, attention to take-off angles, arrestors before
the wiring goes into the house, and a fanatical campaign to eliminate
potential ground loops. You know how you're supposed to keep your feet
together if you're caught in the open during a lightning storm? If you have
equipment grounded in different places, that's the same as moving your feet
apart. Strke current trying to fight its way through sorta-conductive dirt
may discover that your equipment is a shortcut.

You can manage a direct strike: operators of really tall towers get hundreds
per year. But it requires a lot of attention to detail and a complete
understand of the physics. For an application like this I'd suggest a
disposable AP at the tower and no wiring going into the house.

I want you slobbering wireless fanboys to listen carefully.

Used towers are dangerous. You can get stitches and broken bones handling
one 10' section of new Rohn 25 if you don't have competent help. A fall from
6' can be fatal, a 'lucky' fall from 20' is still going to leave you with a
lifetime of disability. Towers are not a permanent fixture. Even with care
they rust and they get metal fatigue if they're not properly braced or
guyed. No professional will reuse tower components without a careful visual
inspection and most will just say no unless its the smallest cross section
segments like Rohn 25 (12" face) and they're not going back up in a large
configuration.

If you get it down and home with all of your toes and fingers intact
you've still got to get it erected. A proper base is an art - see a
prebankruptcy Rohn catalog for details. You need to calculate the wind load
for the size of antenna you'll use and make sure you're using appropriate
guying or bracing for the given load.

The tallest building I've ever had to service was 634'. The tallest
facility I've ever had to manage was 485'. The tallest tower I've ever
personally climbed was 300'. The tallest I've ever specified myself and
helped install was 60'. The tallest water tower I've ever worked was 135'.
The most I've done in the last year was an install at 55' on a 185' Penrod
30. The only experience I don't have is dealing with cylindrical cellular
type towers.

Stating my experience should shut down the cantenna artists who just
became tower recycling gurus by reading that article twice, but I'm at a
loss as to how to say this so that I won't get someone saying "Aren't you
special?". I am special in the scheme of Slashdot, because I talk about
things I do rather than things I fantasize about doing.

So much for my resolution to never, ever respond here again.

Erecting a tower is serious business. You have to know what you are doing,
and know it well. It's not a simple matter of throwing it up and climbing
it. You WILL kill yourself if you do not know what you are doing. You MUST
have your tower installation inspected, and in many cases, you must get a
building permit to put one up and have a civil engineer sign off on your pad
and guy wire plan. You must also have a registered PE inspect and/or tension
your guy wires if you are to be able to obtain liability insurance on your
tower. If you do not do these things, and something happens, YOU ARE
SCREWED. Towers are heavy, fragile, and wimpy. If your tower falls and kills
someone, you're looking at a manslaughter charge unless you can demonstrate
due diligence.

Do you remember kindergarten physics? Remember the machine called the lever?
A 60-foot lever has a tremendous mechanical advantage. 20lbs of wind force
at the top has 1200 lb-ft of torque at the bottom unless you are guyed
properly. It's not uncommon to see wind forces of 100lbs or more during
severe storms.

Putting up a tower is no joke.

Hear, hear. (Sorry, but I'm right with you on the "talk about things I do
rather than things I fantasize about doing" thing.)

But, did you read the article? The fsckin' tower itself is the safest bit of
the whole project! It might be 30+ years old, exposed to the canadian
weather, and been knocked around by trucks in the back yard of his father's
workplace, but I'd trust it a damn sight more than I would his
built-over-several-weeks-out-of-waste-concrete base, his
made-from-old-leftover-gal-plate baseplate home welded to the base of the
tower, or the 3 bolts and 6 nuts which hold it in midair (look carefully -
the baseplate doesn't touch the concrete slab).

Not to mention that the hole filled with water in 12 hours - he's got a
serious problem with his soil stability right there.

Personally, I'll wait for the story telling how the bolts broke, the welds
cracked, the baseplate tore, the slab delaminated, or the whole thing
floated out of the ground and fell over...

we do this on a regular basis for customers with lots of foliage and who are
desperate to get broadband. this is actually very common.

we found that it's cheaper and safer to have someone (e.g your power
company) plant a wooden pole. we've had customers that buried a 60 ft (and a
couple of times 70-ft) wooden pole 10 feet in the ground, with some concrete
around it, and they've never moved since. you can get a set of pegs to do
about 3-4 poles for around 90 bucks, with a tool to drive them in. it helps
if you know what you're doing and have some climbing experience, of course.

we also have a couple of customers that have guyed and non-guyed masts and
tri-poles up to 70 ft.... people will do strange shit for high speed porn.

the worst part is having to do routine maintenance and realignments, just
cause it's time consuming and wears you out.

another neat tower design is the kind that "breaks over" close to the
ground, and has a counterweight. you can fold it over, install your gear,
and straighten it back up.

Good old boys should sometimes stay inside watching tv, then get up and go
to the bar.

The new splash of paint he put on was indeed absolutely mandatory -
corrosion Control is a big deal in towers. You must grind off all the rust
you can find, and place a good sealing paint meant for this purpose on it,
completely cover everything. Use galvanized bolts, and preferably inspect
them occasionally. I know its hard at home, but it should be done at least
every few years so that you don't end up with a tower section in your living
room.

Lightning rods....Lightning rods don't keep your tower from being hit. In
fact they increase the likelyhood of them getting hit as it brings 'the
ground' closer to the cloud that is making the big booms. The point of a
lighting rod is to provide a path of least resistance for all those
lightning strikes so that it goes to ground through the damn rod instead of
through your computer equipment.

Erg. Simpletons.

Some guy a few miles east of Helena, Montana, built this mondo cross out of
55 gallon drums. It was about 15 drums tall, or about 60 feet.

Even so, his faith was evidently somewhat lacking, because he felt a need to
brace it up with half a dozen guy wires.

It may be there yet, for all I know.

How do you keep lightning from destroying your computer/wireless equipment
in this case?

you have two choices. You can pray to several gods or sacrifice livestock on
a regular basis. Both of those are the most effective at protecting from
lightning strikes.

there is nothing technological you can do to protect against a direct
lightning strike except for one thing.... Insurance.

I insure everything in my home including my ham radio gear and then hope for
a strike every thunderstorm. I call thunderstorms my "upgrade lottery" if I
get a hit I get all new gear for a deep discount!

Hell a strike 100 feet from your home will trash all your computers even if
they are off from the massive EMP. A buddy of mine lost 4 laptops still in
their boxes that way.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lightning_rod


71. Passive repeater
http://www.pbs.org/cringely/pulpit/pulpit20020207.html

72. Captive portal
http://dev.wifidog.org/wiki/
EWRT kyljes on ka captive portal:
http://www.portless.net/menu/ewrt/

73. CAM
http://mxhaard.free.fr/spca5xx.html

74. "Vesi" ja antennid
http://www.unwiredadventures.com/photos/cold_wireless/index.html
http://www.wirelessestimator.com/breaking_news.cfm


75. L2ppar, toide ja "imelik" wifi.
Helistas yks kaasv6itleja ning kurtis, et miski 2 n2dalat tagasi l2ks tal
l2ppari wifi yhendus imelikuks - levi k6igub palju (1..11M) ning pidevalt
katkeb 2ra.
Saatja on miski 50 meetri kaugusel naabri katusel ning soovitasin tal eraldi
vastuv6tja ning oma AP paigaldada. Ostiski need 2ra, aga sama jama.

L2ksin talle t2na kylla ning oma l2ppariga proovides ei olnud sellist jama - istub
ilusasti 11 M kyljes ning ping on 2..3 ms. Tema l2ppariga samast kohast on pingi
aeg v2hemasti 17 ms ning vahepeal p6rutab yle 100 ms + katkeb. Katseks paigaldasin
talle eraldi cardbus Proximi ning sellega ei olnud enam miskit pingi jama
(tal nyyd samuti 2..3 ms).

Arvatavasti on miski jama integreeritud Inteli mini-pci'ga, aga k6ikse
huvitavam asi alles tuleb - kui endada l2ppar vooluv6rku, siis pingi ajad
kukuvad 2 ms peale!
Proovisin korduvalt ning t6epoolest nii ongi! Toide kyljest, jamad yhendusega,
toide kylge, k6ik pelab.

Kommentaarid?

PS: L2ppar on miski uuem Dell.

http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?t=247097

Vastustest selgub, et see suht tavaline Inteli jama ning akult k2ies peabki
miskit jama tegema. Avitab:
intel PROset/wireless -> tools -> adapter settings -> advanced -> power managment -> slaideriga m2ngimine


76. Keskkond & levi

http://140.105.28.77:3455/1/102
via
http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?t=248760


77. Eesti raadiosagedusplaan
http://www.sa.ee/atp/?id=2578
https://www.riigiteataja.ee/ert/act.jsp?id=994129
http://www.sa.ee/atp/?id=3325
via
http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?p=2746408#2746408


78. Remote telnet login via script - expect
http://forum.openwrt.org/viewtopic.php?pid=26079#p26079


79. "Probleem: wifi signaal segab teleka pilti"

http://foorum.hinnavaatlus.ee/viewtopic.php?t=199504

Sai ise t2na selle "n2htusega" tutvust tehtud.

Lingiseadmed telekaantenniga sama posti kyljes, aga antennist miski 2 m madalamal.
Aktiivseadmed eraldi plastkastis ning toide saadetud yle PoE.

ETV pilt isegi mitte ei n2idanud t2hekesi, vaid suisa virvendas.

Olukorra lahendas varjega CAT5 kaabel.

Kusjuures k6ik CAT5'ed tuli varjega panna, sest isegi see 1 m kaablijupp
CAT5'te, mis 2 seadme vahel oli tekitas sama olukorra, mis 10 m PoE kyljes
olevat CAT5 kaablit.


80. WiMAX kiirgusvõimsuse piirangud
Küsisin teadjamalt ning sain sellise vastuse:

3,5 GHz WiMAX seadmete pruukimiseks tuleb sideametilt ainult sagedusluba võtta
ja siis küta niipalju ku saad...
Minuteada on 28 dBm max praegu seadmete väljundis, kangemaid ei tehta.

Kui peaks 5,4 GHz peal WiMAX tulema, siis ilmselt kehtib määruses
kirjutatu endiselt, 1W seega max...


81. Motorola WE800G + OpenWRT + liideste MAC aadressid

Kui WE800G'l on sild lo~hutud, siis raadio ja LAN portide MAC aadresse saab
muuta sedapsi:

1. Uus LAN MAC aadress

nvram set lan_hwaddr=12:34:56:78:9A:BC
nvram commit
reboot

2. Uus WLAN MAC aadress

nvram set wifi_hwaddr=CB:A9:87:65:43:21
nvram commit
reboot

Kui WE800G'l sild ei ole lo~hutud, siis kehtima peaks ainult LAN MAC
aadress, aga ma ei ole seda kontrollinud.